Online course代修:如何理解英文俚语词汇?

大家在阅读英文原著,或者跟外国人交流的时候,是不是时常有这样的困扰:这个词我没听说过,这是什么意思?在牛津词典里也查不到,他/她到底在说什么?其实理解和翻译俚语有特殊的方法和小技巧。按照这五步做,你也能轻松读懂俚语!
 
    Step1:
 
    第一步:
 
    Realize that the biggest challenge in interpreting slang is that the linguist understands the expression that is being communicated with the slang word. Different languages have different slang terms, but despite that all the slang words are trying to express the same basic emotions of excitement, joy, fear, disgust, anger etc. So instead of looking for a literal translation of the slang word, it is important that the interpreter have the relevant cultural context to understand what the person is trying to express and then convey the expression in the target language.
 
    在翻译俚语的过程中会遇到的最大的困难就是理解俚语交流中的表达方式。虽然不同的语言会产生不同的俚语表达,但是他们都在表现相同的感情内核:激动,欢乐,恐惧,厌恶,愤怒还有其他很多。所以比起在字面上翻译俚语表达,更重要的是翻译者需要掌握相应语言的文化背景,然后理解作者想要传达的情感,才能传达和翻译作者的想法。
 
    Step 2:
 
    第二步:
 
    An easy way to identify the structure of slang terms is to check for the occurrence of one or more of the following:
 
    在判定俚语的结构时并不乏捷径,比如寻找俚语的如下特点:
 
    1. Slang terms/phrases use symbols instead of letters
 
    1. 俚语词语/术语会使用符号来取代字母;
 
    2. They might use similar sounding letters to replace the original ones
 
    2. 俚语使用者会用同音的字母来替代彼此.
 
    3. Slang words use a heavy degree of capital letters, even when they are grammatically incorrect, to claim for attention
 
    3. 虽然在语法上不甚准确,但是俚语使用者会让大写字母大量出现在的俚语表达中从而达到吸引读者注意的目的。
 
    Step 3:
 
    第三步:
 
    Know that these slang words are not of standard use. We have to interpret slang English Terms with their corresponding formal words to understand and convey what the writer wants to. There are resources aplenty available for helping linguists with slang English words. Some of the examples are:
 
    俚语词汇并没有一个标准用法。很多时候我们需要联系与其对应的正式用语来解读它们的含义,并从中理解作者用这些俚语的意图。现有的很多资料都可以帮助语言学者正确地翻译英语俚语词汇,例如:
 
    1. Dictionary of Slang English
 
    1. 《英语俚语词典》
 
    2. Slang- Wikipedia
 
    2. 俚语-维基百科
 
    3. British Slang book
 
    3. 《大英俚语书》
 
    4. On-line Slang Dictionary
 
    4. 在线俚语词典
 
    5. Australian Lingo Guide book
 
    5. 《澳洲术语指南》
 
    Step 4:
 
    第四步:
 
    Recognize this list of some of the English Slang words with their Equivalent words is as follows:
 
    整理出一个英语俚语词汇和其对应正式用语的列表:
 
    1. Dope=stupid (愚蠢的)
 
    2. Dirty=obscene (下流的)
 
    3. Dork=strange person (奇怪的人)
 
    4. Drag=boring (无聊的)
 
    5. Dynamite=powerful (有力量的)
 
    6. An earful=a lot of gossip (诸多流言)
 
    7. Eating away=bothering (打扰)
 
    8. Fix=dose of drugs (药物剂量)
 
    9. Flaky=unreliable (不可靠的)
 
    10. Fox=very attractive (非常吸引人的)
 
    Step 5:
 
    第五步:
 
    Understand that the real challenge for the interpreter arises because most languages might not have cultural equivalents of certain words which represent a concept. For example, it would be extremely difficult to explain to an Englishman the concept of certain local Indian rituals and ceremonies like sati, sindoor, mundan simply because there are not cultural equivalents. The other challenge arises when one is interpreting pun, humor, sarcasm. These expressions are routed in cultural contexts and might not make sense to people from a different nation and/or culture.
 
    语言学者在翻译俚语的过程中遇到的最大挑战莫过于,大部分语言缺乏共同的文化背景去理解俚语词汇所代表的含义。比方说,向一个英格兰人解释sati(“萨蒂”,印度古老传统,如果丈夫早亡妻子必须在丈夫的火堆跳火自焚)、sindoor(发际红,印度女性眉间的一点红)、mundan(印度教的新生儿剃发仪式)这些代表印度传统仪式和节庆的词汇是极其困难的。
 
    相对的,让印度人理解pun(双关语)、humor(幽默感)、sarcasm(讽刺)这些英语中的特定名词也是一种挑战。这些特殊的俚语表达扎根于不同的文化土壤中,因此外来者可能无法理解俚语背后的含义。
   
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